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Introduction From the first day in graduate school in psychology, psychotherapists and rosa parks essay intro between therapists and clients”, and they have been repeatedly told to “never abuse or exploit our vulnerable and dependent clients.

As persuasive essay ageism asthe prominent psychoanalyst Ernest Jones, raised a concern about the assumption of therapists’ omnipotence, and labeled it as the “God syndrome.

Ethics texts and risk management advice columns in our professional newsletters bilingual education essay conclusion all presented a similar unified message about therapists’ unilateral power and clients’ inherent vulnerability.

While the universal assumption about the “power differential” is like an undercurrent in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, and counseling, persuasive essay ageism is paradoxically a split between the ethicists, risk management experts and boards who over-emphasize the “power differential”, and the clinicians and the theoreticians who largely avoid or ignore any reference to power Heller, Clinicians tend to ignore the issue of power that is a reflection of the culture at persuasive essay ageism that often associates power with coercion, abuse, or injustice, in order not be perceived by themselves or others as controlling and dominating Proctor, The exceptions to the rule have been some feminist, humanist, narrative and postmodern psychotherapists.

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As a result, the discussion of power has been primarily confined to ethics and risk management classes, licensing boards and court hearings. In these settings the emphasis has been on harm and on the persuasive essay ageism vulnerability of clients to therapists’ persuasive essay ageism power and influence.

Many psychotherapy or counseling clients are, persuasive essay ageism, distressed, traumatized, anxious, depressed and therefore vulnerable.

Many others are also very young, impaired and vulnerable and can be easily influenced by their therapists. Then, on the other hand, other clients are strong, authoritative and successful. Many modern day consumers seek therapy to enhance the quality of their lives, improve their loving relationships or find meaning and purpose for their lives.

They are neither depressed nor traumatized nor vulnerable. A more inclusive look at power reveals that the power differential in some instances is completely valid, but in many other instances it is a myth.

The error is to see the power persuasive essay ageism as always relevant – as if all clients are the same and all therapist-client relationships persuasive essay ageism.

Despite the evident fact that some therapists and counselors are successful and powerful while many others struggle financially and are, at times, emotionally fraught, the faulty belief that all therapists hold ultimate power over all their clients sujet de dissertation en droit civil on.

Throughout this paper, the context of the material will make it obvious when it discusses the valid power differential and when it refers to the myth. While there seems to be a consensus on therapists’ power over their clients, there are four views regarding this power. The minority group is composed of those who are highly critical of psychotherapy and counseling in general.

The majority of scholars and ethicists i. They view it as potentially harmful if abused and warn against such misuse of power. The third group is composed of feminist, humanist, persuasive essay ageism and postmodern scholars i.

A fourth perspective was introduced by Lazarus in his ground breaking article titled “The illusion of the therapist’s power and the patient’s fragility: Exploring the myth of therapists’ omnipotence and patients’ fragility” c. This latter approach is the main theme of this persuasive essay ageism. It looks at power as dynamic rather than static Zur, It refutes the notion that power in therapy is exclusively persuasive essay ageism by therapists, and it equally rejects the simplistic notion that power is imposed by therapists exclusively on their clients.

It claims that the dynamics of power and how it affects all the players persuasive essay ageism can persuasive essay ageism be understood within the context of psychotherapy. It also identifies the many forms of power and elucidates how not only therapists, but persuasive essay ageism clients, often possess them or bring them into the therapeutic exchange. This paper expands on Lazarus’ and Zur’s original work and reviews the different approaches to power offering a persuasive essay ageism and inclusive view of the complexities and diverse forms by which power may manifest itself in the psychotherapeutic arena.

The goals of this paper are to bring the issue of power out of the clinicians’ closet and to critically look at the ethicists’ and legal experts’ assumption of therapists’ omnipotence and clients’ inherent vulnerability. While the general topic of power obviously extends to economic, political, racial, gender and many other realms, the focus of this paper is on the persuasive essay ageism arena. The hope is that the paper will help psychotherapists, counselors, and clinicians review and discuss issues of power in therapy without being trapped in the two extremely unhelpful positions of denial or blind belief in the “power differential” myth.

By exploring the complexity, variability and the intricacy of power relationships in psychotherapeutic relationships, therapists persuasive essay ageism be able to view their relationships with their clients in more realistic and helpful ways.

Most importantly, by having a better understanding of the multiple types and forms of power, therapists are likely to increase their clinical effectiveness. This paper presents, in all probability, the most extensive and up-to-date account of the myth of the power differential by providing numerous direct quotes from the most prominent scholars in the field, codes of ethics, court rulings, state laws, and other sources.

It also provides direct quotes from those who have perpetuated the myth that all therapists have influential power over all their clients long after the termination of the professional relationship and those who claim that: It persuasive essay ageism provides a rather complex view of power in therapy and details how therapists and clients are vested with different forms of power.

Next, the paper looks at the diverse ways that therapists attempt to bolster their power over their clients.

The last several sections of the paper discuss: Finally, the paper proposes new ways to view power relationships in psychotherapy that are realistic to the field of therapy and counseling and are, at the same time, respectful to clients.

And most importantly, how this new approach can help increase therapeutic effectiveness. The Myth of the Power Differential: need help with essay writing the Horse’s Mouth Following is a compilation of quotes that exemplify the prevalence of the message regarding the supposed power discrepancy between therapists and clients.

The quotes below are from leading scholars, codes of ethics, different theoretical orientations, and mental health attorneys. This section closes with quotes from a renowned expert who likened the therapist-client relationship to that of cheap essay writing online and child. The lettering in bold in the following quotes was added to emphasize certain wording and does not appear in the original texts.

Quotes from Leading Scholars and Ethicists Power in Therapy The message of therapists’ power and clients’ dependency comes from some of the most prominent scholars and ethicists in the field, from presidents of our professional associations and major organizations and citations gleaned from the most acclaimed ethics texts.

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All of these have helped to establish and perpetuate the notion of therapists’ omnipotent power and clients’ inherent vulnerability: The psychotherapist is in a much more powerful and influential position than the client ” Barnett,p. While acknowledging the complexity of persuasive essay ageism pastoral relationships, we avoid exploiting the trust and dependency of clients.

In using the power differential to the benefit of the client, she does not take persuasive essay ageism of power which rightfully belongs to her client. As a result, she is aware of the need for confidentiality in all settings. Recognizing that her client’s concerns and persuasive essay ageism well-being are persuasive essay ageism, she self-monitors both public and private statements and comments.

Situations may develop through persuasive essay ageism involvement where power dynamics shift, including a client having equal or more authority than the therapist.

In all such situations, a feminist therapist maintains accountability. Body Psychotherapists will be sensitive to the real and ascribed differences in power, be responsible for bringing potential issues into the awareness of those involved, and be available for reasonable processing with those involved.

As will be discussed later in this paper, the fact that the power does not appear in these codes does not mean that these codes deny the existence of a power persuasive essay ageism in therapy. Quotes from Feminist Therapy Literature on Power in Therapy The issue of power in persuasive essay ageism has been central to feminist therapy. When it comes to therapist-client relationships, feminist therapy has struggled to balance two approaches.

On power persuasive essay ageism be shared between therapists and clients and egalitarian relationships must be achieved in order to promote persuasive essay ageism.

On the other hand, most feminist therapists subscribe to the power differential idea by emphasizing the persuasive essay ageism, expert and legitimate power literature review on rabbits in therapists by society and a patriarchal culture.

They often focus on how therapists’ abusive power results in sexual abuse of vulnerable clients by domineering and exploitative therapists.

Following are a few quotes from feminist therapists on the issue of therapist-client power relationships. Feminist therapists work to create a relationship in persuasive essay ageism power addition problem solving activities shared, and persuasive essay ageism mutuality is the goal.

Yet denying power differentials in the therapy relationship may have deleterious consequences. Believing that feminist therapists are powerless or have no power relative to others may be one of the persuasive essay ageism important issues related to harm in therapy. Recognized as unethical due to the power imbalance inherent in the structure of the therapist-patient and teacher-student dyads, erotic contact between therapists and patients has been revealed in prevalence studies to occur at an unacceptably high incidence rate 9 to 12 percent among persuasive essay ageism health practitioners.

The power differential term paper help is often based on the psychoanalytic construct of transference. According to traditional analytic literature, client transference and projection results in viewing the therapist as having unrealistic, immense power and, therefore, rendering the client powerless and vulnerable.

Following are a few quotes from analytic literature on the construct of transference and power in analysis. The therapeutic context and this applies to psychopharmacological or so-called medical back-up relationships contains a power imbalance persuasive essay ageism in the structure of the relationship. This imbalance derives from many sources but revolves primarily around the unequal distribution of attention paid to the client, patient, or student as compared with the therapist, analyst, teacher, or member of the clergy.

Furthermore, the persuasive essay ageism comes to therapy seeking help, guidance, support and self-knowledge, and he or she is usually in a state of emotional disequilibrium, distress, or need. Finally, the therapy process encourages unresolved, transference-based relationships in which the patient will begin to experience the therapist as an important and conflictual figure from the past.

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Usually, this takes the form of an intense yet persuasive essay ageism mode of relating derived from early childhood, most often with a parent.

Many non-analytic scholars subscribe to the idea of the importance of transference. Following is an example from feminist scholars who refer to the important link between transference and power.

They make a distinction between two types of therapy. Type A therapy is one in which the transferential relationship plays a primary role in the process.

Power in Psychotherapy and Counseling

On the other hand, Type B therapy is short-term and offers little opportunity for transferential relationships to develop. Based on this distinction, they offer six rules. First, sexual contact with former clients Research paper topics creative writing have received Type A therapy is always and forever prohibited.

Following is one example of this: Here are a couple of examples from prominent attorneys: The heart of the problem lies in the persuasive essay ageism unequal bargaining power between the parties once the therapeutic relationship has been established. Correspondingly, they view therapists’ power as similar to that literature review on performance appraisal the parents of persuasive essay ageism children.

The shared similarities of therapist-patient sex, rape, and child sex abuse present a variety of scientific, clinical, and practical dilemmas to researchers and therapists.

The power differential can remain after therapy is terminated, just as incest can still occur when children become adults and leave the family home.

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Jorgenson, one of the plaintiff’s lawyers in the Riley case, also was aware of the Plymouth County award and predicted that more such suits will follow. The application of the Riley decision to persuasive essay on protecting endangered animals abuse is a persuasive essay ageism one, she says, because of the ‘power imbalance’ that exists between therapist and patient as it does between adult and child.

The therapist persuasive essay ageism becomes a parent in the patient’s eyes. As a society, we do not see the adulthood of the child as opening the door to sexual relationships with the parent. We acknowledge that there remains within the equal relationship between parents and their adult children some remnant of the enormous power imbalance that is the hallmark of early parent-child relationships. Once A Client, Always A Client Many of those who subscribe to the idea that all psychotherapy clients are highly vulnerable to their psychotherapists’ influence also view therapists’ power as lasting long beyond termination and even forever – “once a client, always a client.

Once a client, always a client.

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As such, it may be persuasive essay ageism to codify that potential for harm by persuasive essay ageism cover letter purpose of travel these relationships as unethical. Even if the treatment course is short and termination is clear, it should be assumed that a power differential continues especially if the former client reserves the right to return for further treatmentmaking such relationships very inadvisable.

One person pays, the other receives.